سیاست و شهرنشینی در قفقاز پیشا‌استعماری: نقش عامل سیاست در تحول حیات شهری شماخی در سده دوازدهم/هجدهم

نویسنده

استادیار گروه تاریخ، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

چکیده

در مقاله حاضر تلاش می‌شود تا با تمرکز بر تحولات شماخی به عنوان یک کانون‌ مطرح شهرنشینی در جنوب قفقاز، عوامل مؤثر بر فرسایش سیمای کالبدی و حیات اجتماعی آن در دوره‌ای متأخر بررسی شود. پرسش محوری پژوهش ناظر بر روند فرساینده‌ای است که در سده دوازدهم/هجدهم، کلیت حیات شهری در شماخی را از میان برد و این شهر مهم دوره صفوی را به ویرانه‌ای خالی از سکنه تبدیل کرد. به این منظور، نخست چشم‌اندازی از وضعیت شماخی و حیات شهری آن در دوره صفوی ترسیم شده و سپس، عوامل مؤثر بر نابودی این شهر و حیات اجتماعی آن از اواخر دوره صفوی تا آستانه تسلط روسیه بر قفقاز بررسی شده است. مبنای این بررسی اطلاعاتی است که از سفرنامه‌ها و گزارش‌های‌ ناظران خارجی به زبان‌های مختلف گردآوری شده است. این اطلاعات با رویکرد تاریخ خُرد و به روش توصیفی تحلیلی در جهت پاسخ به پرسش محوری پژوهش پردازش شده است. نتیجه پژوهش نشان می‌دهد که سرنوشت شماخی در دوره مورد بحث از عوامل مختلفی مانند بستر جغرافیایی و اقلیمی، موقعیت مرزی و ترکیب ناهمگون قومی و دینی تأثیر پذیرفته‌ است. با وجود این، عامل محوری در این زمینه ضعف اقتدار سیاسی و تأثیر آن بر ناهمگونی قومی و فرهنگی شماخی در دوره پس از صفوی بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Politics and Urban Life in Pre-Colonial South Caucasia: The Case of Shamâkhî in 18th Century

نویسنده [English]

  • javad morshedloo
associated professor of history, Faculty of Literature, TarbiatModares University (TMU), Tehran,Iran
چکیده [English]

Social life of Southern Caucasia in pre-colonial period is a subject which mostly missed Iranian’s scholarly attention. Bearing this in mind, this paper attempts to shed new lights on a less studied aspect of this subject; its focus is on the historical aspects of urban life in eastern Caucasia before Russian dominance. Drawing on observational material which gleaned from multi-languages sources, it is organized into three parts: the first one deals with the historical situation of Shamakhi in the Safavid period, the second part has focused on the historical developments of Shamâkhî in early 18th century, and the last, traces the decaying process during which this main urban center of precolonial southern Caucasia was destroyed. As results show, administrative policies played a crucial role in this decaying process.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Caucasus
  • Safavid state
  • Shamakhi
  • Shirwan
  • Nadir Shah
  • urban life
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