معیشت، تغذیه و شیوۀ گردآوری غذا توسط مردم در گذشته، بخشی از مطالعات حوزۀ تاریخ اجتماعی به شمار میرود. با پژوهش در این موضوعات میتوان با مواد غذایی و چگونگی تهیه، تولید، نگهداری و مصرف آنها در گذشته آشنا شد. در این نوشتار، به نقش خرما در زندگی روزانۀ مردم روستای شَلدان در جنوب استان فارس، طی سالهای 1300 تا 1357ش پرداخته شده است. خرما در این روستا، از راههای مختلفی تهیه میشد و در کنار نان، خوراک اصلی مردم شلدان را تشکیل میداد. افزون بر این، خرما استفادۀ طبی نیز داشت، جایگزین مناسبی برای شکر بود و از آن محصولات و غذاهای مختلفی تهیه میشد که برخی از آنها هنوز هم مورد توجه است. این پژوهش با روش توصیفی – تحلیلی در پی پاسخ به این سؤال است که خرما به عنوان یکی از مؤلفههای فرهنگ مادی چه نقشی در شکل دادن، هویت بخشیدن و استمرار یافتن زندگی روزانۀ مردمِ روستای شلدان در فاصلۀ سالهای 1300 تا 1357ش داشته است؟ از آنجا که در منابع تاریخی راجع به پیشینۀ این روستا و مکانهای پیرامون آن اطلاعات زیادی وجود ندارد، تکیۀ اصلی این پژوهش بر تاریخ شفاهی از طریق مصاحبه با شماری از معمرین و اسناد محلی حسینیۀ روستا بوده است. نتایج پژوهش نشان میدهد که خرما به عنوان یک عنصر مادی و یکی از مؤلفههای مهم فرهنگِ مادی و فرهنگِ دینی مردم شلدان، نقش بیبدیلی در شکل دادن و تنظیم روابط اجتماعی در زیستجهان مادی و معنوی و متعاقب آن در زندگی روزانۀ آنها داشته است.
Dates, identity and daily life (Case study: Shaldan village 1921 -1978)
In this article, the role of dates in the daily life of the people of Shaldan village in the south of Fars province,during the years 1921to1978 has been discussed. Dates in this village were prepared in different ways and along with bread, they were the main food of the people of Shaldan. In addition,dates were used medicinally, also it was a good substitute for sugar, from it various products and foods were prepared, some of which are still interest. This research has been done by descriptive-analytical method and seeks to answer this question: what is the role of dates as one of the components of material culture in shaping, identifying and continuing the daily life of the people of Shaldan village between 1300and1357AD? Since there is little information about the social life of the people of Sheldan village and their food in historical and documentary sources, in this study; Oral history was considered and information was collected during the years 1392 to 1395 based on interviews and interviews with 10 men and women of the village who were between 60 to 90 years old. They provided information about both their predecessors and their experiences in preparing, collecting, storing, buying and selling, exchanging and making sweets and other date products. After extracting data obtained from oral history and historical sources and endowment and local documents, these data are categorized and analyzed in the fields of material and spiritual life. In the field of material world biology, categories of palms and dates, sources of dates in Sheldan, the nutritional importance of dates in Sheldan, date products and medical use of dates, as well as in the field of spiritual world biology, categories of belief in dates, dates, charity endowments, and dates were examined.
Sheldan is located in Galedar and Asir area of Mohr city in the south of Fars provinc. The Galedar and Asir area consists of two sections with centers. According to the artifacts found, Sheldon is very old. The palm is one of the native trees of Sheldan village and the Galedar and Asir area. Palm tree cultivation in tropical regions of Fars province and the production of rotab and dates in this region is very old. The palm plant is resistant to drought and lack of water and can survive for a long time without water and rain. In the past, when there was a drought in the Galedar and Asir area and livestock perished, it was the palm tree that, despite the drought and lack of rain due to the high drainage (groundwater) and the palm trees use of it, it remained standing and even provided the people with the dates they needed. The palm was highly valued and respected by the people, and the ancients considered it "the root and fruit of man." There have been various types of palms called musali (musli), shoumazi, shaghuni, khoshkhark, mazavi, jahromi, lesht, marzavoon, khanizi -e- qatifi, gantar, khosei and pivahoo in this region.
The results show that dates as a material element and one of the important components of material culture and religious culture of Sheldan people, has played an irreplaceable role in shaping and regulating social relations in the material and spiritual world and consequently in their daily lives. In fact, the dates with a special agility have shaped, identified and sustained the daily life of the people of Sheldan village for five decades. Dates have been able to shape the social relations of the people of Sheldan with each other and with the whole Galedar and Asir region and even remote areas. In this regard, can be mention to the formation of a kind of biological and social identity and lifestyle appropriate to dates as the staple food of the people of Sheldan, different methods of production, distribution, sales, processing of products, creating inherited traditions and forming a kind of indigenous knowledge in conversion the dates to a variety of foods in the biological material world and the use of dates for endowment and charity in the spiritual world.