این پژوهش با هدف بنمایش درآوردن تاثیر بیماریها بر سبک زندگی و شکل محل سکونت در طول یک سده پیشین، به مطالعه موردی شکلگیری شهر جدید آبادان میپردازد. آیا همهگیری مکرر بیماری وبا و طاعون در سالهای ۱۲۸۷-۱۳۰۳ش/ ۱۹۰۸ -۱۹۲۴م در مناطق نفتی و بویژه شهر آبادان تاثیری بر تغییر مهندسی شهری و نوسازی شهری در این حوزه جغرافیایی داشته است؟ این پژوهش در پی یافتن پاسخی روشن بر این پرسش است. روش تحقیق در این پژوهش توصیفی و تحلیلی ست و از اسناد و مدارک آرشیوملی و آرشیو شرکت نفت انگلیس و ایران و وزارت امور خارجه و منابع کتابخانه ای بعنوان ابزار پژوهش بهره گرفته است.
دستاورد و یافته های پژوهش: بر اساس نتایج تحقیق، بیماری های وبا و طاعون بر شکلگیری شهر جدید آبادان تاثیر مستقیم داشته و شکل و کارکرد مسکن شرکتی جدید بر عادات، روابط اجتماعی و معیشت ساکنان تاثیر گذاشته است. ساکنین این خانه ها تفاوتهای کالبدی را در مسکن جدید تجربه کردند و این تفاوتها مولفه های سبک زندگی آنان را تحت تاثیر قرار داد.
Abadan Urban Engineering,In the aftermath of the epidemic after World War I.
This study aims to show the effects of diseases on lifestyle and the form of the place of residence during the previous century through a case study of the formation of the new city of Abadan. Has the frequent epidemic of cholera and plague in the years 1287-1303 / 1908-1924 AD in the oil areas, and especially the city of Abadan, had an effect on the change of urban engineering and urban renewal in this geographical area? This research seeks to find a clear answer to this question. The research method in this research is descriptive and analytical and has used records and documents of the National Archives and the archives of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and library resources as research tools.
Research Achievements and Findings: Based on the results of this research, cholera and plague had a direct impact on the formation of the new city of Abadan and the form and functions of the new houses of the company had affected the habits, social relations, and livelihood of the residents. The occupants of these houses had experienced physical differences in the new housing and these differences affected the components of their lifestyle.
One hundred years ago, cholera, plague, smallpox, influenza, and typhus killed many people around the world. These diseases were exacerbated by the outbreak of World Wars I and II. The movement of troops on the battlefield and the migration of war-torn people and the famines that arose from the war all contributed to the spread of disease. Although Iran declared neutrality in both wars, it did not suffer from the consequences of the war and infectious diseases. Infectious diseases spread more than the center due to the movement of foreign nationals, internal migrants and Allied soldiers in the border areas of the country. Outbreaks appear to be exacerbated in the Khuzestan region and oil-rich regions, including the Spanish flu, smallpox, cholera, plague, syphilis, and typhus. Because Khuzestan was an oil-rich and migratory land, infectious diseases had caused a great deal of suffering and death. At the height of the fight against the spread of epidemics in Abadan and the oil regions, the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company began rebuilding the cities of Masjed Soliman and Abadan. Did the outbreak of infectious diseases and the concern of oil company executives about the impact of the disease on British oil interests influence this decision? Did Abadan urban reconstruction and engineering affect the lifestyle of the people living in this area? Was organizing the city and segregating working-class neighborhoods and staff and managers to prevent the spread of disease? Based on the documents, this article tries to find out whether the goal of the oil company for the reconstruction of Abadan city was to observe hygienic principles and prevent the spread of diseases?
Many sources have not dealt with the issue of infectious diseases in the years under discussion, and among the books and articles related to the establishment of Abadan and the reconstruction of Masjed Soleiman in 1302 and 1303 / 1923-1924, attention has been paid to the role of cholera and plague in urban engineering. Has not been. Kaveh Ehsani in his book (The Social History of Labor in the Iranian Oil Industry) has mentioned the impact of public health and modernization of Abadan city in the reconstruction of Abadan bazaar and neighborhoods, but that plague and plague 1923-1925 is one of the motivations Reconstruction of the city of Abadan has been an issue that has not been addressed. Also in the book Sociology of Abadan written by Abdolali Lahsaeizadeh about the efforts of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company to prevent the spread of diseases in Abadan and Masjed Soleiman, but does not address the diseases of the years after World War I and its impact on the reconstruction and modernization of Abadan. The book Oil and Life, which deals in detail with the modernization of Abadan in 1924 and 1925, pays more attention to the issue of public health. However, this study has considered the role of cholera and plague outbreak by foreign workers in the oil industry in Abadan and oil regions in southern Iran in the years after World War I as one of the reasons for the renovation of Abadan and Masjed Soleiman.
The prevalence of infectious diseases has certainly had a significant impact on the architectural form of cities such as Abadan and Masjed Soleyman in the last hundred years. The experience of the people and officials of the oil company from the epidemic of diseases; It reinforced ideas that prevented the occurrence or spread of possible diseases in the future. Diseased sheds and houses; They were demolished and burned, and the owners were not allowed to rebuild the house there. Arrangements were also made for the discharge of sewage from the neighborhoods. Planned and spent on sanitation and treatment of drinking water. Neighborhoods were demarcated according to the location and occupation of its inhabitants. Quarantines and medical centers became more important. Wide streets and canals and urban public spaces, as well as buildings with private toilets and bathrooms, were on the agenda of urban civil engineers. Despite public resistance, the oil company has a pre-determined plan; Determined the position of each stratum and group of residents of the city. The shape, size of houses and neighborhoods of houses and public places affected the type of interaction of individuals.
The documents of this theory are the documents that are kept in the archives of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company and the National Archives of Iran, which are the basis of this research and some of which have been referred to.