آخرین شاهنشاهی ایران باستان را شاید بتوان آغاز دوره شکل گیری کلنی های مسیحی در ایران دانست چرا که بر جمعیت این اقلیت دینی در دوره ساسانیان با اعمال برخی از سیاست های دربار ساسانی روز به روز افزوده تر شد و آنها در نقاط مختلف ایران ساکن شدند. تلاش مسیحیان برای اتحاد و تثبیت موقعیت شان در جامعه ایران نه تنها باعث مشارکت و نقش پذیری آنها در حوزه های مختلف مانند حوزه اقتصادی و اجتماعی شد بلکه مسیحیان در سایه تسامح و مدارای مذهبی برخی پادشاهان ساسانی موفق شدند کلیساهایی مستقل از کلیسای بیزانس در قلمرو ساسانیان برپا کنند. با مطالعه و بررسی " منابع مکتوب" و "یافته های باستانشناسی" با برخی از کلنی های مسیحی در این دوره روبرو هستیم که از جمله آنها میتوان به مراکز اسقف نشین نسطوری در صفحات شمالی و جنوبی خلیج فارس همچون ریواردشیر، میشان، جزیره خارک، سیربنی یاس و بیت مزون، بیت قطرای، مشماهیگ، دارین و هگر اشاره کرد. در این مقاله بر آن شدیم تا زمینه های شکل گیری اسقف نشین های نسطوری را در دو سوی خلیج فارس با مطالعه کتابخانه ای و روش توصیفی-تحلیلی مورد بررسی قرار دهیم. معرفی اسقف نشین های نسطوری در دو سوی خلیج فارس و واکاوی علل و زمینه های شکل گیری آنها در صفحات شمالی و جنوبی خلیج فارس از اهداف پژوهش حاضر است.
Causes of the formation of dioceses Nestorian on the Coasts and Hinterlands of the Northern and Southern of Persian Gulf
Jesus Christ was born in the time of Farhad V (2B C.- 4) and Christianity entered to Iran in the shadow of Parthian Kingdom religious tolerance slowly. Following the fall of the Parthian empire and the rise of the Sassanids, Christianity continued to exit in the society of Iran. The last reign of ancient Iran may be known as the beginning of the formation of Christians colonies in Iran as the population of this religious minority had been added during the Sasanian era by applying some of the policies of the Sasanian court and they had been settled in different part of Iran.
Christians efforted to unify and stabilize their position in Iran not only contributed to their participation in various fields such as the economic and social sphere, but also Christians in the shadow of religious tolerance of some Sasanian kings succeeded in establishing churches in Iran. Studying various “written sources” and “archaeological findings” were appeared some Christian colonies which are including the Nestorian dioceses on the coasts and hinterlands of the northern and southern of Persian Gulf in this period such as Rēv Ardašir, Mishān, Kharg Island, Bēt Mazon, Bēt Qatrāyē, Mašmāhig, Sir Baniyas, Darin, Hagar. In this paper the causes of Nestorian dioceses formation have been tried to survey in two parts of Persian Gulf with library study and analytical-descriptive method. The aim of this study is to introduce the Nestorian diocese on the both side of the Persian Gulf and to investigate the causes and fields of their formation on the coasts and hinterlands of the northern and southern of Persian Gulf. Tree hypothesis have been proposed to answer this question.
The first hypothesis is the policy of the Sassanid Kings that was the settlement of Christians who were among captives in Iran especially on the coasts and hinterlands of the northern of Persian Gulf by Shapor I (240-270) for the first time and the powerful Sassanid kings such as Shapor II (309-379), KhosrowI (531-579) and Khosrow II (590-628) followed this policy. It caused to the arrival of Christians to Iran in 4 seasons and during various steps and they were settled in different parts of Iran. Because of this policy, the Christian population of Iran increased. The Christians participation and presence in different spheres began by increasing of this religious minority. For example, we can mention to Simon Barsabai who was responsible to collect taxes from Christians who lived in Mesopotamia and Khuzestan during the reign of Shapur II.
The Second hypothesis, the formation of council of christian bishops in Iran that happened in the time of Yazdgird I (399-421) at the request of the Christian Bishop Marutha who is the leader of the Roman negotiating team, bishops from different parts of Iran participated in this council in 410 which were including bishops of Mishān, Kharg Island, Bēt Mazon, Bēt Qatrāyē, Mašmāhig, Sir Baniyas, Darin, Hagar. Dioceses became official on both side of Persian Gulf and Christians achieved unity and solidarity; Nestorian sect was officialized during the reign Piroz (459-484) and Nestorian Christians were supported by the Sasanian kings.
Third hypothesis is Christian participation in various fields such as the economic and social sphere, they worked as trader in different places such as Mashmahig where was the pearl fishing center and they developed economically. Evidanc of this claim was the attempt of Christians to establish a Christian monarchy in Iran and its reason was the crisis of Anoushzad, his mother was christian, the son of Khosrow I. Anoushzad was imprisoned in Jundishapor prison because of his desire to Christianity that was his mother religion. He was informed of king illness when Khosrow I marched on Syria, Anoushzad revolted with prisoners in the prison and escaped to Mesopotamia. Khosrow I, who was informed of crisis through the letter of Ctesphon governor, ordered the arrested and suppression of the insurgent. Eventually, the Christinas attempts to establish a Christian empire was unsuccessful in Iran. This indicates Christians economic power and their remarkable increasing in Iran.
All the above factors led to the formation of episcopal settlements in different and important places along the trade route on the northern and southern parts of the Persian Gulf