تحقیقات زیادی دربارهی مادرسالاری، پدرسالاری، زنسالاری و فرزندسالاری انجام شده است، اما تاکنون پژوهشی عمیق و جدی درباره جایگاه برادر در ایران کهن و بازماندههای آن در فرهنگ مردم کرد و لر انجام نشده است. هدف از این تحقیق، آوردن نمونههایی از جایگاه برادر، در ایران باستان و ارجیّت داشتن او نسبت به فرزند و شوهر (نمونه حکایت زنِ اینتافرن و هنبوی)، بازتاب این داستان در فرهنگ و ادبیاتِ عامه مردم کرد و لر؛ همچنین بررسی بازماندههای برادرسالاری دوران کهن در فرهنگ مردم کرد و لر است. ضربالمثلها، اشعار، ترانهها و باورهای زیادی دربارهی جایگاه برادر در فرهنگ مردم کرد و لر وجود دارد که همگی بیانگر بازماندههای برادرسالاریِ دنیای کهن در فرهنگ این مردمان هستند. این پژوهش به دنبال یافتن پاسخی برای سؤالات ذیل است: چرا هنوز در فرهنگ و ادبیات عامه مردم مناطق کرد و لر، برادر ارجحتر از پسر و شوهر است؟ چرا خواهر زاده را از تبار دایی میدانند؟ و چرا در ادبیات حماسی مردم لُر خونستانِ خواهرزادهها، داییها هستند؟ در این تحقیق تلاش شده با استناد به منابع کتابخانهای و مصاحبه شفاهی و به روشِ توصیفی -تحلیلی به این موضوع پرداخته شود.
Remnants of ancient brotherhood in the culture of Kurdish and Lor people.
Many studies have been conducted on matriarchy, patriarchy, gynarchy, filiarchy, but not any systematic and serious study has been done on the status of “brother” in ancient Iran and its remains in the culture of Lurs and Kurds. The study aimed to provide readers with some examples of the status of “brother” in ancient Iran and its superiority to the child and husband and its manifestation in the culture and folklore of Lurs and Kurds. There are many proverbs, poems, songs, and beliefs on the status of brother in the culture of Lur and Kurd peoples that show filiarchy in their long history.
Moreover, uncle or “brother of mother” has still a high status in the culture of Kurds and Lurs, so that nephews/nieces are linked with their uncle (brother of mother) when introducing their lineal kinship or addressing them. The study sought to answer the question: Why is brother yet superior to sons and husbands in folk literature and culture of Lurs and Kurds? Why are uncles (brothers of mother) avengers of nephews/nieces?
Research on the folks’ culture and beliefs from social history and cultural anthropology perspectives is valuable and can shed light on many unknown issues. Though several researches have been conducted on the thought and beliefs of Zagros peoples, many things are unknown that need to be investigated, especially the cultural heritage of ancient people among contemporary Iran that have survived through the history. In spite of all cultural changes among peoples of Zagros, there are traditions and beliefs that, from cultural anthropology perspective, one can find their roots in the myth world of very old times. One of the cultural survivals among Lurs and Kurds is filiarchy.
The study used library resources and interviews and applied a descriptive-analytical method. It tried to provide a well-documented answer for the research question using history of mentalities and Jung’s archetypes theory.
The results show that filiarchy has survived from ancient times to the current generation through oral tradition and is alive among Lur and Kurd peoples. The story dates all back to Achaemenid era. Darius gave Intaphrens’ wife the chance of saving one of relatives, that is, her husband, child, or brother. She saved her brother. The same story, though with different wordings and forms and changing the protagonists, has survived all over history and is alive in the culture and folklore of Lurs and Kurds; The story that lives today in the form of poetic folktales; A repetitive story that by changing characters, continues sometime in Achaemenid era and in Zahhak story in Iran after Islam, in Afsharid period and in contemporary era. The reason of this continuation is the content of the story which is the high value and status of brother in Iranian culture, as if it was not acceptable to Iranians it would have been impossible to survive through history. Moreover, part of our history is in the collective unconscious of people; so it transfers unintentionally.
Also, in Lurs’ and Kurds’ culture, like ancient peoples, child is known and introduced with uncles. Proverbs as well as epic songs and poems show the high status of brother and uncle (brother of mother).