فرهنگ شستوشو نزد نگاه معاصر، یکی از مولفههای ارزیابی فرهنگهای کهن برشمرده میشود و از اینرو، تحقیق درباره آن، یک ضرورت است. اینکه ریشه مساله، یعنی درک نیاز به پاک ساختن تن بر چه مبنایی بوده، نخستین گام وارسی موضوع مورد بحث است. در ادامه، پرداختن به این که سازههای مشخص و مرتبط با استحمام از چه زمانی و در کجا پیدایی یافت و چگونه این مساله در جاهای دیگر ظهور کرد، مسیر پژوهشی را بنیاد مینهد. سپس چگونگی رو آوردن به گرمابه و فرهنگ شستوشو با آب گرم، بررسی و نمونههای تاریخی و باستانشناختی آنها ارزیابی میشود. در این پژوهش دیده شد گرچه طبق اصلی مهم در آیین زرتشتی و در دوران چیرگی این دین، امکان برپایی و نشر فرهنگ استحمام در گرمابههایی به سبک یونانی-رومی ممکن نبوده است، اما این مساله به مفهوم دور بودن ایرانیان از فرهنگ پاکیزگی نبوده و در اینباره، شاهدهای جالب توجهی در اختیار است. این مساله حتی درباره وجود مکانهای اختصاصی برای شنا نیز قابل اثبات است. در حقیقت، تنوع فرهنگهای ایرانی و انیرانی رایج در فلات ایران، دروازه هرگونه نتیجهگیری یکسویه در این زمینه را مسدود میکند. مقاله پیش رو نشان میدهد که در فرهنگ زرتشتی، در کنار وجود شیوهای از فضاسازی جهت تسهیل استحمام با آب سرد، نوعی از گرمابه نیز پدید آمد که با ساختار رومی متفاوت بود. همچنین بیان شد که در محتوای اساطیر ایران باستان نیز ارزشمندی فرهنگ شستوشو قابل پیگیری است و این میتواند بنیادی بر وارسیهای میدانی-تطبیقی آن در گستره باستانشناسی اساطیر باشد
Bathhouses and Thermae in the Iranian world; From the beginning to the end of the Sassanids era
One of the studies approaches in cultural archaeology is to study the level of attention to the subject of health and its understanding in general in ancient societies and important areas of human history, especially in cultures related to the third millennium BC and after that. These important regions are the Indus Valley, Central Asia, the Iranian Plateau, Mesopotamia, the Caucasus, Asia Minor, Canaan, Egypt, Greece, and Cyprus, and the origins of the Etruscan and Latin peoples in Italy. Why and how man came to understand that he needed to keep his body clean is a secondary issue and how he linked it to his ancient religious concepts. Evolutionary behavioral ethics articles have been written on the importance of handwashing to prevent disease (Whitby, 2006: 484-492).
Gradually, such individual cognitive experiences became group experiences, and this led to the institutionalization of the principle of cleanliness and the need for washing. This article seeks to answer the following two questions:
- Do archaeological evidence and the content of written historical sources show information about the influence and role-making of the culture or cultures of the people of the Iranian plateau in the formation of baths and baths from the Bronze Age to the Sassanid era?
- Was there any sign of productivity in the Iranian-Zoroastrian culture, and if so, how different was it from the Roman examples?
In this research, the work is based on a chronological analysis of written source data and non-written and field documents related to architectural remains. The fact that this timeline analytical process can clearly show cultural influences from the first documented origin to other places is a common and well-known method in the study of history and archaeology.
Findings and Conclusions
Contrary to current popular attitudes and despite the religious problem of Zoroastrianism with Roman baths, the culture of bathing has been documented among Iranian, Zoroastrian, and non-Zoroastrian populations and spaces for this have been found in some places. In this regard, even the Zoroastrian rules had established special washing rituals to remove the elements of filth. In addition, the bath with the standard architectural structure attributed to Xerxes I in the southern quarter area of Persepolis is not far from the baths of the Greek world. It was also stated that despite the Romanization of many of Dura-Europus' health facilities, documentary examples from the Parthian period have been reported in that city, and some from the cities of Hatra and Assur have either been reported or excavated. There is also evidence of the culture of bathing in the court of the local king of Persia and related to the late Parthian era. During the Sassanid rule and probably from the period of Shapur II or Peroz I or Khosrow I, a unique example of an aristocratic pool for swimming was created in the city of Kish, which also had a water inflow and outflow system. It was further stated that before the time of Khosrow I, Zoroastrian Iranians used to bathe in cold water, and this was done in the cold seasons of the year by heating the bath space (near the court and possibly the wealthy class with an interesting system of hot air flow from elsewhere. And on the ordinary floor with an ordinary oven or stove in place). In addition, it was said that the Zoroastrian challenge to the Roman baths, which had a religious appearance, was rooted in the unsanitary nature of these baths and their severe pollution, which was reflected in the Zoroastrian mentality as contaminating fire by reheating used water. Is. The reason for this claim is that from the time of Anushirvan, a compromise arose between the Zoroastrian rules and the issue of thermae, and the reason was the commissioning and construction of a new type of these structures based on keeping the water heating place away from the washing place and not setting the fire. It has been used again for water, and these two pillars were probably the basis of the structure of the baths of the city of "Weh Antiok Khosrow" and also the bath of the palace of Asbānbar (Taq-i Kasra). Also, the existence of a recommendation in Zoroastrian rules (Denkard VIII) to use baths for religious warriors after the battle and to calm them down in this way, as well as the establishment of rules for how to set up baths in private homes, clearly shows that most likely, From the time of Khosrow I, the Ēranshahri-Zoroastrian community had moved towards the widespread use and launching of the Iranian state of this health structure, both publicly and privately.