نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانش آموخته دکتری تاریخ، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران.

10.30465/shc.2022.39028.2287

چکیده

اقتصاد ایران در عصر رضاشاه اولین مرحله گذار از اقتصاد کشاورزی به اقتصاد صنعتی و سرمایه داری را تجربه کرد. تاسیس و گسترش مراکز صنعتی و کارخانه ها به ویژه در بخش ریسندگی و بافندگی مشاغل سنتی زنان خاصه کار زنان قالیباف را نیز تحت شعاع قرار داد. نوشتار حاضر بی آنکه بررسی روند صنعتی شدن در دوره رضاشاه را هدف خود بداند، در پی پاسخ به این پرسش است که رشد مراکز صنعتی در این دوره چه تاثیری بر اشتغال زنان کارگر داشت، شرایط کار برای  کارگران زن که عمدا در بخش قالی بافی متمرکز بودند به چه شکل بود و آنها چه جایگاهی در تدوین نظامنامه های قانون کار داشتند. فرضیه پژوهش با تکیه بر روش کتابخانه ای خاصه مطالعه اسناد کارخانه ها و کارگاه های قالی بافی در این دوره، توضیح می دهد که کارگران زن و کودکان کارگر در کارخانه‌ها و کارگاه‌های قالی‌بافی در بدترین شرایط کار کرده و مورد استثمار کارفرمایان قرار می‌گرفتند؛ دولت ایران نیز در اتحاد با کارفرمایان، به رغم پذیرفتن قراردادها و نظامنامه‌های بین‌المللی کار که به زنان کارگر توجه ویژه داشت، در عمل کوچکترین توجهی به ضرورت اجرای مفاد این قراردادها به ویژه در خصوص زنان و کودکان نداشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

Extended Abstract:

The situation of female and children carpet weavers in the era of Reza Shah Their place in international labor regulations in the era of Reza Shah (based on documents)

The transition of Iran's economy from the stage of agricultural economy to industrial economy and capitalism in the era of Reza Shah led to the beginning of the process of industrialization and significant growth of industries, especially the spinning and weaving industry. The change in the traditional occupations of women and their access to spinning and weaving factories was one of the consequences of the beginning of the industrialization of the Iranian economy in the era of Reza Shah. This article seeks to answer three basic questions: first, what changes have taken place in traditional women's occupations such as carpet weaving influenced by the policies of Reza Shah's modern national government, and second, what are the working conditions and working environment for women carpet weavers in this period? It was a shape. Another issue that is considered and questioned in this article is the position of women and children in the international labor regulations, which were also accepted and signed by Iran. This article answers the above questions in a library way and by studying the existing documents in the field of labor. He brought a number of women and, of course, children, especially girls, into knitting factories and workshops as carpet weavers. Since the determination of the modern national government of Reza Shah was to change all the structures of the country, the government, in order to change the handicrafts of women and provide a platform for the growth of occupations that were traditionally considered feminine, held handicraft training classes. And he made art such as designing, drawing carpets and rugs and weaving all kinds of rugs, carving, mosaic making and textile weaving under the supervision of the General Directorate, and in 1310 he added the school of weaving to this collection. The establishment of spinning, weaving and handicraft workshops equipped with new imported machines was another measure taken by the government to change the carpet weaving profession. Training classes were also held in orphanages.

What is important about the employment of working women in the spinning and weaving industries is their working conditions and employment-living difficulties, as well as the study of the status of women and children in international labor laws and regulations, the provisions of which the Iranian government also provides. Was accepted. During the reign of Reza Shah, the number of women workers was not significant and carpet weaving factories that also had women workers were limited to cities such as Isfahan, Gross and Kerman, which have long been centers of carpet weaving. An examination of archival documents shows that the women and children workers involved in carpet weaving belonged to poor families who worked in very poor conditions for the meager wages of their husbands, often suffering from a variety of diseases, including tuberculosis and tuberculosis. Other lung-respiratory diseases included osteoporosis, paralysis, preterm labor, miscarriage, and the birth of defective children. Working women were paid less and were exploited in various ways. Due to its international status and, of course, under the pressure of the international community in the field of workers' and children's rights, the Pahlavi government was forced to establish internal labor regulations and accept international treaties on the rights of women and children workers. The regulations included legal rights for workers, including adequate wages, eight hours a day, having a safe and healthy work environment, maternity leave, and holidays. The deplorable situation of working women and children, which, through the existing labor documents referred to in this article, shows that in practice almost none of the regulations were implemented, and the exploitation of female workers continued under the umbrella of government and labor union. The regulations included legal rights for workers, including adequate wages, eight hours a day, having a safe and healthy work environment, maternity leave, and holidays.

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