برنامههای پنجگانه عمرانی و توسعۀ دورۀ پهلوی دوم سال 1327 به تصویب رسید. هدف اصلی برنامههای عمرانی این دوره، تغییر بنیانهای اقتصادی و اجتماعی جامعۀ سنتی ایران به یک کشور توسعه یافته بود که مهمترین مؤلفههای آن بالا بردن سطح استانداردهای زندگی و تبدیل به جامعۀ صنعتی و شهری بود. مقالۀ حاضر میکوشد اوضاع کشاورزی و کشاورزان استان کردستان را طی سالهای 1327 تا 1351 (پایان برنامۀ عمرانی چهارم) با تکیه بر پژوهش تاریخی و رویکرد اقتصادی و اجتماعی، براساس جمعآوری اسناد از مراکز معتبر سندی کشور مانند: اسناد موجود در کتابخانۀ ملّی، مرکز اسناد همدان، مدارک موجود در سازمان برنامه و بودجه، مرکز پژوهشهای مجلس و منابع کتابخانهای مورد بررسی و موشکافی قرار دهد. با حذف نظام بهرهبرداری ارباب –رعیتی، نظام مدیریت سنتی روستایی بدون جایگزین مناسب برچیده شد. همچنین برنامههای توسعۀ اجتماعی- اقتصادی پهلوی دوم در استان کردستان بیشتر مربوط به طرحهای خدماتی بود.(متاثر از رویکرد سیاسی- امنیتی) بنابراین در نهایت منجر به شکلگیری نارضایتی عمومی و آسیبپذیری سیاسی گردید. روش پژوهش در این مقاله به شیوه اسنادی و تحلیل محتوای اسناد است.
Kurdistan farmers and economic reform plans in the second Pahlavi era (Documentary studies)
Political, social, and economic developments are intertwined to such an extent that they do not have any clear boundary. As a result, their effects on each other cannot be ignored. Economic and social transformations usually take place in the hope of achieving development. Development is considered a qualitative, comprehensive, multidimensional, human, and social category, in such a view; citizens are the goal of development, not the tools of politicians and policy makers. In other words, designers and planners have to target and implement all aspects of development and mutual effects of politics, culture and economy in a balanced way. In terms of country divisions, Kurdistan province was the governor general at the beginning of the twenty fifties and was later recognized as the twelfth province of Iran. The newly established province of Kurdistan was considered deprived based on economic criteria. Its two economic bases; Despite the large capacity, agriculture and animal husbandry were at the lowest level of productivity. Fertilizers and industrial tools were still unknown and most of the lands were cultivated as rain fed. The serf lords system and proprietary interests had taken the motivation for development from the farmer serfs. Lack and high cost of fodder and livestock diseases were among the problems of ranchers. The private sector did not contribute and had no role in the economy. Apart from a number of employees of military departments and organizations, no job capacity had been created. Although in the second seven-year construction program (1955-62), the third construction program (1952-67) and the fourth construction program (1967-1972), rural orientation and special attention to the agricultural sector were of special importance from the point of view of the planners, and service plans. Electricity, water, telephone, public health, road construction, communications, and support for the development of industrial projects were provided.
In this study, the consequences of the implementation of construction programs was analyzed by relying on historical evidence, program rules and annual budgets and referring to reliable document centers. In addition, it tried to answer the question of the research (what effect did the implementation of the construction programs of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi period have on the condition of the villagers and farmers of Kurdistan province during the years 1948 to 1972 i.e. the end of the 4th construction program)? On the other hand, the situation of the rural economy of Kurdistan province from 1948 to 1972 (employment, agriculture, agrarian reforms and the livelihood of farmers) was examined based on the government's programs and plans for economic development. Regarding the economic, social and political developments of Iran during the period of Mohammad Reza Shah, a variety of historical research works with different perspectives have been written. Most of them include memoirs, publications, analysis of important political issues of the period, and some of these researches only examined the evolution of Iran in general, which included different provinces of Iran.
In the case of "Kurdistan province", especially the mentioned period, unfortunately, there are no works worthy of attention, and the political history was the only resource considered by researchers. However, we can refer to the book "Land Reforms in Kurdistan" by Shahin Ra'nai, which analyzed the economic, social and political consequences of land reforms in Kurdistan province.
Therefore, it can be claimed that most of the researches have had a political approach.
According to the mentioned cases in this research, in order to extract valid data and information, archival documents was used and the "agricultural and rural economic situation of Kurdistan province" was examined and analyzed along with five construction and development programs.
Examining the codified economic and social developmental programs of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi period shows that the main goal of the development programs was the transition of the Iranian society from an underdeveloped country with low per capita income, health, and low level of living standards to a developed country. It paved the way for Iran to transform from a traditional-rural society to an urban and industrial society.
The findings of the present research show that in the year of the end of the implementation of the fourth program (1972) of civil, economic, and social development, most of the communication routes between cities within the province of Kurdistan, as well as the neighboring provinces were still gravel. The rural roads of Kurdistan (1800 villages) were still impassable by car. Agrarian reforms did not bring happiness to rural farmers, with the removal of the lord-serf exploitation system; the traditional rural management system was dismantled without a suitable replacement. The villages lost their prosperity, freshness, and productive face. Since the socio-economic development programs of Pahlavi II in Kurdistan province were mostly related to service plans (affected by the political-security approaches), it eventually led to the formation of public dissatisfaction and political vulnerability. In addition, it can be said finally that: the modernization of social, economic and cultural infrastructures was very slow and unacceptable.